The Physiologic Effects of Immersion

The main physical properties of water that produce biologic effects are:




Hydrostatic Pressure

Thermal properties

     ★     Lowers blood pressure

     ★     Increases cardiac volume

     ★     Increases stroke volume

     ★     Increases cardiac output

     ★     Improves ejection fraction

     ★     Decreases peripheral vascular resistance

     ★ Improves vascular compliance

     ★     Increases intrathoracic blood volume

     ★     Slightly decreases thoracic size

     ★     Increases work of breathing

     ★     Can work to strengthen muscles of respiration

     ★     Offloads bones and joints

     ★     Increases muscle blood flow

     ★     May increase bone blood flow

     ★     May increase synovial fluid production

     ★     Increases renal blood flow

     ★     Alters renal hormones

     ★     Increases renal efficiency

     ★     Promotes sodium excretion

     ★     Increases diuresis

     ★     Increases brain blood flow

     ★     Promotes relaxation

     ★     May improve balance

     ★     May improve sleep patterns

     ★ May positively impact brain function in dementia